Translators have cost NHS Tayside more than £364,000 in the past year.
Father-of-four Ben Mbeva, 48, has worked for AA Global since January interpreting for Swahili-speaking patients attending GP appointments in Hull.
As part of his freelance contract, Mr Mbeva is paid £15 per consultation he attends, which can last up to an hour, but is not paid for his travel expenses.
According to Mr Mbeva, he was fined £40 for taking a sick day and was asked for a doctor's note to explain his absence, which he was unable to show.
Somerset County Council will spend "in the region of £980,000" on translators and related projects over the next four years.
The council's current contracts for translation and interpretation expire on September 1, meaning new provision must be sought before that date.
The main provider of courtroom interpreting to the Ministry of Justice says it is removing a section of its service agreement with interpreters that some believe prevents them from whistleblowing.